Raptor species: why are they increasing in danger of extinction?

According to research conducted by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and BirdLife International (a global partnership of conservation organizations), about 30% of the 557 Raptor species globally are at risk of extinction.

 

What are raptor species?

Raptors are birds of prey. They are carnivorous and kill and eat mammals, reptiles, amphibians, insects as well as other birds. All raptors/predators are carnivores with curved beaks, strong legs with sharp claws, sharp eyesight.

Significance

Raptors or birds of prey on a wide range of vertebrates as well as disperse seeds over long distances which indirectly promotes seed production and pest control. Raptor birds are the birds of prey at the top of the food chain. Threats such as pesticides, habitat loss, and climate change have the most dramatic effects on them, so they are also called indicator species.


The population of raptor species: Indonesia has the largest number of these species, followed by Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Examples of raptor species: owl, vulture, hawk, falcon, eagle, kite, buteo, accipiter, harrier, and osprey.

Reasons for the threat:

Use of Diclofenac: Due to the widespread use of diclofenac, populations of some vultures in Asian countries such as India have declined by more than 95%. Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.


Deforestation: Large-scale deforestation over the past decades has led to a rapid decline in the population of the Philippine eagle, the world’s largest variety of eagles. The Philippine Eagle is listed as critically endangered under the IUCN Red List.


Hunting and Poisoning: Vulture populations in rural areas in Africa have declined by an average of 95% over the past 30 years due to eating, shooting, and poisoning the carcasses of animals treated with diclofenac.


Habitat loss and degradation: The Anobon scops-owl (Anobon scops-0wl) is restricted to Anobon Island in West Africa, which has been recently listed as ‘Critically Endangered’ under the IUCN Red List due to rapid habitat loss and degradation listed. the category was classified.

Efforts to conserve raptor species:

Raptors MoU (Global): This agreement is also known as ‘Raptors MoU’. The agreement promotes a ban on hunting and protection of migratory birds in the Africa and Eurasia region.

The CMS is an international treaty under the United Nations Environment Programme.
It is also known as the Bonn Convention.

The purpose of CMS is to protect terrestrial, marine, and flying migratory fauna. The Convention provides a global forum for discussion on migratory wildlife and their natural habitat. It is not legally binding.

India’s Conservation Efforts:

India is a signatory to the Raptors MoU. Vulture Action Plan 2020-25 has been started for the conservation of vultures. And is a part of the SEV (Save Asia Vultures from Extinction) federation.


The Jatayu Conservation Breeding Center in Pinjore (Haryana) is the world’s largest conservatory for breeding and conservation of Indian vulture species within the state’s Bir Shikargah Wildlife Sanctuary.

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