What is urbanization? the solution to the problems associated with this?

What is urbanization? What can be the solution to the problems associated with this? Cities are often seen as a technology for poverty alleviation; According to statistics, the total GDP of New York City is similar to the GDP of Russia, while New York has only 6% of the population and 0.00005% of land as compared to Russia.

However, the COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the perception of rural areas, which are perceived as urban as technology is undesirable due to their hostility towards migrants, disease infection hotspot propensity, and consequently the decreasing centrality of work. Digitization.

But, COVID-19 can be seen as an opportunity to catalyze ‘good urbanization’ by empowering our cities with more power and money.

Debate: magician vs prophet

The city has emerged as a matter of debate in the times of covid after being ‘desirable or undesirable’. It is reminiscent of a debate about food that emerged in the 1960s, which was covered in Charles Mann’s seminal book The Wizard and the Prophet.

Norman Borlaug—or “the wizard”—is the Nobel-winning scientist whose Believed that science and technology would overcome all challenges and started the Green Revolution in agriculture on a global scale.

William Vogt – i.e. ‘Prophet’ – believed that prosperity wasted without giving humans a chance for frugality Degi and thus launched the environmental protection movement. While Norman Borlaug called for ‘innovation’, William Vogt called for a retreat.

Urbanization: a solution or problem

If the process of urbanization happens within a reasonable time frame, it can generate many positive effects. Thus, some of the positive effects of urbanization include creation of employment opportunities, technological and infrastructural progress, better transport and communication, quality educational and medical facilities and improvement in the standard of living etc.

Whereas if the process of urbanization is irregular over a long period of time. If it continues, some adverse effects may also arise. Urbanization attracts people to cities and towns leading to high population growth.

With the increase in the number of people living in urban centres, there is a continuous shortage of housing. Metropolis or metropolis (population more than 10 million) create a challenging situation for those who are not wealthy or powerful.

The problem is most prevalent in urban areas and is more severe among educated people. It is estimated that more than half of unemployed youth worldwide live in metropolitan areas. The cost of living in urban areas is very high.

When this cost, along with unprecedented growth and unemployment, exacerbates the challenges of poor people and leads to the proliferation of illegal settlements. 26 of the world’s 33 megacities are in developing countries because of the rule of law in their rural areas, There is a lack of infrastructure and productive commerce.

Additionally, it cannot be denied that our urban centre, apart from megacities, suffers from problems such as improper planning, non-permissive infrastructure, lack of affordable housing and poor public transport.

However, megacities are not necessarily challenging. Tokyo, for example, is home to a third of Japan’s population, but planning and investment has created a system in which essential workers such as teachers, nurses and policemen are rarely given two hours to work. You have to travel more.

The most practical metric for city quality is offered by Italian physicist Cesare Marchetti, who believes that 30 minutes is the most acceptable, or, said, decent travel time (whereas from walking to cycling).

the mode of transport to trains and cars has changed) It is almost impossible to apply the ‘Marchetti constant’ in a city like Bangalore, as taxis and autos move at an average speed of 8 km/h due to the traffic here.

Major problem of urbanization in India: Weak local urban bodies

The annual expenditure of the central government is about Rs 34 lakh crore and the total annual expenditure of the state governments is about Rs 40 lakh crore, while according to the estimates of the 15th Finance Commission, more than 2.5 lakh local bodies spend only Rs 3.7. lakh crore annually.

There are several reasons for this unequal expenditure: Electricity: The powers of the local government have been limited by the state government departments on subjects like water, electricity, schools, healthcare etc. (if water is supplied by municipal bodies). Property tax collection would be 100%.

This is often unacceptable, but the state government itself exercises unlimited control over local bodies (suspension of mayors and other elected representatives in most states). Or removal of them or supersession of elected local bodies is a common situation).

Having separate central rural and urban ministries distorts the policy.

Lack of good leadership: Lack of power and resources starts a dangerous vicious cycle where ambitious and talented People are not invited to lead in cities.

The Way Forward – The Need for Sub-urbanization

For socio-economic justice: Sub-urbanization is very important to ensure economic justice for women, children and other weaker sections of the society. Poor quality of urbanization results in migration of only men, where women work in agriculture, children They are left behind for their upbringing and family service.

They have neither access to health services nor are they able to get emotional support from their spouses. Rural children attending poor quality government schools have to take vocational courses or English-led entrance examinations for civil services. face language challenges in the U.S.

It can be said that our other urban centers suffer from problems like improper planning, non-permissive infrastructure, lack of affordable housing and poor public transport. Thus, sub-urbanization is not possible without focus on small and medium cities.

Providing electricity and money to cities: For suburbanization, the state government will have to sacrifice its selfishness. It can help provide employment to millions of youth waiting for high quality jobs and opportunities.

India has been fortunate to have Norman Borlaug win over William Vogt in the ‘Food Technology’ debate. That is, ‘Innovation’ has won.

As the debate on urbanization is gaining momentum in the post-Covid times, we hope that the ‘Magician’ will once again win over the ‘Prophet’.

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